Current Issue


Why does galectin-3 have a unique intrinsically disordered region? “Raison d’être” for the disordered structure and liquid–liquid phase separation –Part 1–

Sachiko Sato

last updated 2023/2/01 (Glycoforum. 2023 Vol.26 (1), A1)

Galectin-3 is structurally distinct from other galectin family members by having not only a lectin domain (carbohydrate-binding domain: CBD) with an affinity for β-galactoside at the C-terminus, but also a non-lectin region of a similar length to the CBD at the N-terminus. Most of the non-lectin region comprises a proline-, glycine-, and tyrosine-rich peptide consisting of 9–13 amino acids, which is repeated 9–12 times. It is an “intrinsically disordered peptide region” that does not form any specific secondary and tertiary structures. Previous studies have indicated that glycan-bound galectin-3 may be involved in liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) using this intrinsically disordered N-terminal peptide region. ...and more

Chitin and Chitosan

Hydrogelation of chitosan and its derivatives: Preparation of fully carbohydrate-based hydrogels using oxidized sucrose

Hiroyuki Kono

last updated 2023/2/01 (Glycoforum. 2023 Vol.26 (1), A2)

Hydrogels can generally be synthesized from chitosan by physical cross-linking or chemical cross-linking, but the chemical cross-linking method is simpler to use and yields a structurally more stable product. Chemical cross-linking agents such as glutaraldehyde and epichlorohydrin are widely used for the preparation of polysaccharide-based hydrogels, but there are concerns about environmental and biological toxicity. Although natural cross-linking agents such as genipin, which is a chemical compound found in Genipa americana fruit extract, are available, their industrial use is limited by cost. Recently, it was reported that polyaldehydes, obtained by oxidizing polysaccharides or oligosaccharides, can be used as a cross-linking agent, and their biological safety and other properties are being confirmed8,9. In this article, we focus on oxidized sucrose (OS), which is obtained by oxidative cleavage of inexpensive sucrose, and its molecular structure and properties as a cross-linking agent for chitosan and its derivatives. ...and more


Attachment of viral particles to the cell surface mediated by heparan sulfate

Yoshitaka Sato

last updated 2023/2/01 (Glycoforum. 2023 Vol.26 (1), A3)

Many viral pathogens utilize heparan sulfate as attachment factors, which facilitates the initial interaction with host cells. We recently identified 3'-Phosphoadenosine 5'-Phosphosulfate Synthase 1(PAPSS1)as a host factor for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection by a genome-wide loss-of function CRISPR screen1. The Knockout (KO) of PAPSS1 reduced heparan sulfate expression. Here, I would like to introduce and discuss the role of heparan sulfate on viral infection. ...and more


Basic Pancreatic Cancer research collaborate with surgeons and researchers

Osamu Shimomura

last updated 2023/2/01 (Glycoforum. 2023 Vol.26 (SI), G1


Activity, specificity and disease relevance of N-glycan branching enzymes

Yasuhiko Kizuka

last updated 2023/2/01 (Glycoforum. 2023 Vol.26 (SI), G2